Coma, vegetative state and minimally conscious state

Diagnostic precision of PET imaging and functional MRI in disorders of consciousness: a clinical validation study
Stender J, Gosseries O, Bruno MA, Charland-Verville V, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Demertzi A, Chatelle C, Thonnard M, Thibaut A, Heine L, Soddu A, Boly M, Schnakers C, Gjedde A, Laureys S.
Lancet (2014) in press

Regional cerebral metabolic patterns demonstrate the role of anterior forebrain mesocircuit dysfunction in the severely injured brain
Fridman E.A, Beattie B.J, Broft A, Laureys S, Schiff N.D.
PNAS April 2014

tDCS in patients with disorders of consciousness
Thibaut A, Bruno M-A, Ledoux D, Demertzi A, Laureys S
Neurology® 2014;82:1–7

Consciousness and Unconsciousness: An EEG Perspective
Noirhomme Q, Laureys S
Clin EEG Neurosci January 2014 vol. 45 no. 1 4-5

Altered network properties of the fronto-parietal network and the thalamus in impaired consciousness
Crone JS, Soddu A, Höller Y, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Schurz M, Bergmann J, Schmid E, Trinka E, Laureys S, Kronbichler M
Neuroimage Clin (2013) in press

Disorders of consciousness after acquired brain injury: the state of the science
Giacino JT, Fins JJ, Laureys S, Schiff ND
Nature Reviews Neurology (2014)in press

White matter changes in comatose survivors of anoxic ischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury: comparative diffusion-tensor imaging study
Van Der Eerden AW, Khalilzadeh O, Perlbarg V, Dinkel J, Sanchez P, Vos PE, Luyt CE, Stevens RD, Menjot de Champfleur N, Delmaire C, Tollard E, Gupta R, Dormont D, Laureys S, Benali H, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Galanaud D, Puybasset L
Radiology (2014) in press

Multiple fMRI system-level baseline connectivity is disrupted in patients with consciousness alterations
Demertzi, A., Gómez, F., Crone, J. S., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., Tshibanda, L., Noirhomme, Q., Thonnard, M., Charland-Verville, V., Kirsch, M., Laureys, S., Soddu, A.
Cortex in press

Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study
Thonnard M, Gosseries O, Demertzi A, Lugo Z, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Bruno MA, Chatelle, C, Thibaut A, Charland-Verville V, Habbal D, Schnakers C, Laureys S
Functional Neurology (2014) Jan 11:1-6

Assessing consciousness in coma and related states using transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography.
Gosseries O, Thibaut A, Boly M, Rosanova M, Massimini M, Laureys S.
Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2014 Jan 3. pii: S0750-7658(13)01195-7. doi: 10.1016/j.annfar.2013.11.002.

Quantifying cortical EEG responses to TMS in (un)consciousness
Sarasso S, Rosanova M, Casali AG, Casarotto S, Fecchio M, Boly M, Gosseries O, Tononi G, Laureys S, Massimini M
Clin EEG Neurosci (2014) Jan 8, in press

A vibrotactile P300-based Brain?Computer Interface for consciousness detection and communication
Lugo Z, Rodriguez J, Lechner A, Ortner R, Gantner I, Laureys S, Noirhomme Q, Guger C
Clin EEG Neurosci (2014) Jan 10, in press

Functional neuroanatomy of disorders of consciousness
Di Perri C., Stender J., Laureys S., Gosseries O.
Epilepsy and behavior. Volume 30, January 2014, Pages 28-32

Common resting brain dynamics indicate a possible mechanism underlying zolpidem response in severe brain injury
Williams ST, Conte MM, Goldfine AM, Noirhomme Q, Gosseries O, Thonnard M, Beattie B, Hersh J, Katz DI, Victor JD, Laureys S, Schiff ND.
Elife. 2013 Nov 19;2(0). doiii: e01157. 10.7554/eLife.01157.

Changes in Effective Connectivity by Propofol Sedation
Francisco Gómez, Christophe Phillips, Andrea Soddu, Melanie Boly, Pierre Boveroux, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Olivia Gosseries, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys, Quentin Noirhomme
PLoS ONE 8(8): e71370. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071370

Dynamic Change of Global and Local Information Processing in Propofol-Induced Loss and Recovery of Consciousness
Martin M. Monti, Evan S. Lutkenhoff, Mikail Rubinov, Pierre Boveroux, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Olivia Gosseries, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Quentin Noirhomme, Mélanie Boly, Steven Laureys.
PLoS Comput Biol 9(10): e1003271

Looking for the Self in Pathological Unconsciousness
Demertzi A, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Brédart S, Heine L, di Perri C, Laureys S
Front Hum Neurosci. (2013) Sep 3;7:538

A Theoretically Based Index of Consciousness Independent of Sensory Processing and Behavior
Adenauer G. Casali and Olivia Gosseries, Mario Rosanova, Mélanie Boly, Simone Sarasso, Karina R. Casali, Silvia Casarotto, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Steven Laureys, Giulio Tononi, Marcello Massimini.
Science Translational Medicine 5, 198ra105 (2013)

Pupil responses allow communication in locked-in syndrome patients
Stoll J and Chatelle C, Carter O, Koch C, Laureys S, Einhäuser W
Current Biology 23 (2013) 647-648

Spasticity after stroke: Physiology, assessment and treatment
Aurore Thibaut, Camille Chatelle, Erik Ziegler, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Steven Laureys, & Olivia Gosseries
Brain Inj, Early Online: 1-13

Coma and Disorders of Consciousness: Scientific Advances and Practical Considerations for Clinicians
Olivier Bodart, Steven Laureys, Olivia Gosseries
Semin Neurol 2013;33:83-90.

Palliative sedation: why we should be more concerned about the risks that patients experience an uncomfortable death
Deschepper R, Laureys S, Idrissi SH, Poelaert J, Bilsen J
Pain, in press

Brain connectivity in disorders of consciousness
Boly M, Massimini M, Garrido MI, Gosseries O, Noirhomme Q, Laureys S, Soddu A
Brain Connectivity (2012) 2(1):1-10

A role for the default mode network in the bases of disorders of consciousness
Fernández-Espejo D, Soddu A, Cruse D, Palacios E, Junqué C, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Rivas E, Newcombe V, Menon D, Pickard J, Laureys S, Owen AM
Annals of Neurology (2012) 72(3):335-43

Brain dead yet mind alive: a positron emission tomography case study of brain metabolism in Cotard's syndrome
Vanessa Charland-Verville, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Mohammed Ali Bahri, Athena Demertzi, Martin Desseilles, Camille Chatelle, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Roland Hustinx, Claire Bernard, Luaba Tshibanda, Steven Laureys, Adam Zeman
Cortex, Available online 12 April 2013

Consciousness supporting networks
Athena Demertzi, Andrea Soddu and Steven Laureys
Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2013, 23:239-244

Sleep in the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state
Cologan V, Drouot X, Parapatics S, Delorme A, Gruber G, Moonen G, Laureys S
J Neurotrauma (2013) 30:339-346

Assessment of localisation to auditory stimulation in post-comatose states: use the patient's own name
Cheng L, Gosseries O, Ying L, Hu X, Yu D, Gao H, He M, Schnakers C, Laureys S, Di H
BMC Neurology (2013) 13:27

Assessment of White Matter Injury and Outcome in Severe Brain Trauma: A Prospective Multicenter Cohort
Galanaud D, Perlbarg V, Gupta R, Stevens RD, Sanchez P, Tollard E, de Champfleur NM, Dinkel J, Faivre S, Soto-Ares G, Veber B, Cottenceau V, Masson F, Tourdias T, André E, Audibert G, Schmitt E, Ibarrola D, Dailler F, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Tshibanda L, Payen JF, Le Bas JF, Krainik A, Bruder N, Girard N, Laureys S, Benali H, Puybasset L for the Neuro Imaging for Coma Emergence and Recovery Consortium
Anesthesiology (2012) 117(6):1300-1310

Diffusion Tensor Imaging to Predict Long-term Outcome after Cardiac Arrest: A Bicentric Pilot Study
Luyt CE, Galanaud D, Perlbarg V, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Stevens RD, Gupta R, Besancenot H, Krainik A, Audibert G, Combes A, Chastre J, Benali H, Laureys S, Puybasset L; for the Neuro Imaging for Coma Emergence and Recovery Consortium
Anesthesiology (2012) 117(6):1311-1321

Actigraphy assessments of circadian sleep-wake cycles in the Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States
Damian Cruse, Aurore Thibaut, Athena Demertzi, Julia C Nantes, Marie-Aurelie Bruno, Olivia Gosseries, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Tristan A Bekinschtein, Adrian M Owen, Steven Laureys
BMC Medicine 2013, 11:18 (24 January 2013)

Abnormal corticospinal excitability in patients with disorders of consciousness
Natallia Lapitskaya, Olivia Gosseries, Victor De Pasqua, Asger Roer Pedersen, Joergen Feldbaek Nielsen, Alain Maertens de Noordhout, Steven Laureys
Brain Stimulation, 2013 Jan 29

Burnout in healthcare workers managing chronic patients with disorders of consciousness.
Gosseries O, Demertzi A, Ledoux D, Bruno MA, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Thibaut A, Laureys S, Schnakers C.
Brain Inj. 2012;26(12):1493-9. doi: 10.3109/02699052.2012.695426. Epub 2012 Jun 22.

Coma and related disorders
Charland-Verville V, Habbal D, Laureys S, Gosseries O
Swiss archives of neurology and psychiatry (2012) 163(8): 265-72

Electrophysiological investigations of brain function in coma, vegetative and minimally conscious patients
Lehembre R, Goseries O, Lugo Z, Jedidi Z, Chatelle C, Sadzot B, Laureys S, Noirhome Q
Arch Ital Biol. 2012 Jun;150(2-3):122-39.

Nursing care of patients with disorders of consciousness.
Puggina AC, Paes da Silva MJ, Schnakers C, Laureys S.
J Neurosci Nurs. 2012 Oct;44(5):260-70.

Consciousness and its descriptors
special issue of the Journal of Psychophysiology 2010; Vol. 24(2)

Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome
Laureys S, Boly M.
Arch Ital Biol. 2012 Jun;150(2-3):31-35.

Clinical assessment of patients with disorders of consciousness
Schnakers C.
Arch Ital Biol. 2012 Jun;150(2-3):36-43.

Modes and Models in Disorders of Consciousness Science
Boly M, Seth AK
Arch Ital Biol. 2012 Jun;150(2-3):172-184.

Our rapidly changing understanding of acute and chronic disorders of consciousness: challenges for neurologists
Gantner IS, Bodart O, Laureys S, Demertzi A
Future Neurology (2013), 8(1) 43-54

A default mode of brain function in altered states of consciousness.
Guldenmund P, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Boly M, Laureys S, Soddu A.
Arch Ital Biol. 2012 Jun;150(2-3):107-21. doi: 10.4449/aib.v150i2.1373.

Mindsight: Diagnostics in Disorders of Consciousness
Guldenmund P, Stender J, Heine L, Laureys S
Critical Care Research and Practice Volume 2012, Article ID 624724, 13 pages, doi:10.1155/2012/624724

Resting state networks and consciousness: Alterations of multiple resting state network connectivity in physiological, pharmacological, and pathological consciousness states
Heine L, Soddu A, Gómez, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Tshibanda L, Thonnard M, Charland-Verville V, Kirsch M, Laureys S and Demertzi A
Front. Psychology (2012) 3:295. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00295

A sensitive scale to assess nociceptive pain in patients with disorders of consciousness
Chatelle C, Majerus S, Whyte J, Laureys S, Schnakers C
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry (2012) in press

Probing command following in patients with disorders of consciousness using a brain-computer interface
D Lulé & Q Noirhomme, S C. Kleih, C Chatelle, S Halder, A Demertzi, M-A Bruno, O Gosseries, A Vanhaudenhuyse, C Schnakers, M Thonnard, A Soddu, A Kübler, S Laureys
Clinical Neurophysiology 2013 Jan;124(1):101-6. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2012.04.030 - editorial by Eric W. Sellers

Resting state EEG study of comatose patients: a connectivity and frequency analysis to find differences between vegetative and minimally conscious states
Lehembre R & Bruno M-A, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Chatelle C, Cologan V, Leclercq Y, Soddu A, Macq B, Laureys S, Noirhomme Q
Functional Neurology 2012; 27(1), 41-47.

Disorders of consciousness: responding to requests for novel diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.
Ralf J Jox, James L Bernat, Steven Laureys, Eric Racine
Lancet Neurol 2012; 11: 732-38
Comments by T. G. Phan and response to comments

Brain-computer interfacing in disorders of consciousness
C Chatelle, S Chennu, Q Noirhomme, D Cruse, A M Owen, & S Laureys Brain Injury [Epub ahead of print]

Reduction in Inter-Hemispheric Connectivity in Disorders of Consciousness
Ovadia-Caro S, Nir Y, Soddu A, Ramot M, Hesselmann G, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Dinstein I, Tshibanda L, Boly M, Harel M, Laureys S, Malach R
PLoS ONE, (2012)

Unresponsiveness different of Unconsciousness.
Sanders RD, Tononi G, Laureys S, Sleigh J.
Anesthesiology (2012) Epub ahead of print

Hierarchical clustering of brain activity during human nonrapid eye movement sleep.
Boly M, Perlbarg V, Marrelec G, Schabus M, Laureys S, Doyon J, Pélégrini-Issac M, Maquet P, Benali H
Proc Natl Acad Sci 2012 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Relationship between etiology and covert cognition in the minimally conscious state.
Cruse D, Chennu S, Chatelle C, Fernández-Espejo D, Bekinschtein TA, Pickard JD, Laureys S, Owen AM.
Neurology (2012)

Metabolic activity in external and internal awareness networks in severely brain damaged patients
Thibaut A, Bruno MA, Chatelle C, Gosseries O, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Demertzi A, Schnakers C, Thonnard M, Charland V, Bernard C, Bahri M, Phillips C, Boly M, Hustinx R, Laureys S
Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, in press

Coma and consciousness: Paradigms (re)framed by neuroimaging.
Laureys S, Schiff N.
Neuroimage. 2011

Pain Perception in Disorders of Consciousness: Neuroscience, Clinical Care, and Ethics in Dialogue
Demertzi A, Racine E, Bruno MA, Ledoux D, Gosseries O, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Thonnard M, Soddu A, Moonen G, Laureys S
Neuroethics (2013) 6(1), 37-50.

Recovery of cortical effective connectivity and recovery of consciousness in vegetative patients.
Rosanova M and Gosseries O, Casarotto S, Boly M, Casali A G, Bruno MA, Mariotti M, Boveroux P, Tononi G, Laureys S, and Massimini M.
Brain Advance Access published January 5, 2012

Granger Causality Analysis of Steady-State Electroencephalographic Signals during Propofol-Induced Anaesthesia
Barrett AB, Murphy M, Bruno M-A, Noirhomme Q, Boly M, Laureys S, Seth AK
PLoS ONE 7(1): e29072. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029072

Functional neuroanatomy underlying the clinical subcategorization of minimally conscious state patients.
Bruno MA, Majerus S, Boly M, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Schnakers C, Gosseries O, Boveroux P, Kirsch M, Demertzi A, Bernard C, Hustinx R, Moonen G, Laureys S.
J Neurol. 2012 259:1087-1098.

Reanalysis of "Bedside detection of awareness in the vegetative state: a cohort study". and authors' reply
Goldfine AM, Bardin JC, Noirhomme Q, Fins JJ, Schiff ND, Victor JD.
Lancet. 2013 Jan 26;381(9863):289-91. web appendix

Bedside detection of awareness in the vegetative state
Cruse D, Chennu S, Chatelle C, Bekinschtein TA, Fernández-Espejo D, Pickard JD, Laureys S, Owen AM
Lancet (2011) - commentary

Eye gaze and conscious processing in severely brain-injured patients [commentary]
Chatelle C, Laureys S, Majerus S, Schnakers C
Behavioral Brain Sciences 33 (2010) 442-443

The ethics in disorders of consciousness.
Demertzi, A., Laureys, S., & Bruno, M. A. (2011).
In J. L. Vincent (Ed.), Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (pp. 675-682). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Multimodal neuroimaging in patients with disorders of consciousness showing "functional hemispherectomy"
Bruno MA, Fernandez-Espejo D, Lehembre R, Tshibanda L, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Gosseries O, Lommers E, Napolitani M, Noirhomme Q, Boly M, Papa M, Owen A, Maquet P, Laureys S, Soddu A
Progress in Brain Research 193 (2011) 323-333

Electrophysiological correlates of behavioural changes in vigilance in vegetative state and minimally conscious state
Bruno MA, Landsness E, Noirhomme Q, Riedner B, Gosseries O, Schnakers C, Massimini M, Laureys S, Tononi G and Boly M
Brain 2011: 134; 2222-2232

Resting state activity in patients with disorders of consciousness
Soddu A, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Demertzi A, Bruno MA, Tshibanda L, Di H, Boly M, Papa M, Laureys S, Noirhomme Q
Functional Neurology 36 (2011) 37-43

Automated EEG entropy measurements in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state
Gosseries O, Schnakers C, Ledoux D, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Bruno MA, Demertzi A, Noirhomme Q, Lehembre R, Damas P, Goldman S, Peeters E, Moonen G, Laureys S
Functional Neurology, 36 (2011) 25-30

Post-anoxic vegetative state: imaging and prognostic perspectives
Stanziano M, Foglia C, Soddu A, Gargano F, Papa M
Functional Neurology, 36 (2011) 45-50

Transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked EEG/cortical potentials in physiological and pathological aging
Casarotto S, Määttä S, Herukka SK, Pigorini A, Napolitani M, Gosseries O, Niskanen E, Könönen M, Mervaala E, Rosanova M, Soininen H, Massimini M.
Neuroreport, 2011 Aug 24;22(12):592-7.

From unresponsive wakefulness to minimally conscious PLUS and functional locked-in syndromes: recent advances in our understanding of disorders of consciousness.
Bruno MA, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Thibaut A, Moonen G, Laureys S.
J Neurol. 2011 Jun 16

Preserved feedforward but impaired top-down processes in the vegetative state
Boly M, Garrido MA, Gosseries O, Bruno MA, Boveroux P, Schnakers C, Massimini M, Litvak V, Laureys S, Friston K
Science, 332 (2011) 858-862 - Supporting online material - Commentary

Comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness and Glasgow Liege Scale/Glasgow Coma Scale in an intensive care unit population
Bruno MA, Ledoux D, Lambermont B, Damas F, Schnakers C, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Gosseries O, Laureys S
Neurocritical Care 15 (2011) 447-453

Cognitive processes in disorders of consciousness as revealed by EEG time-frequency analyses.
Fellinger R, Klimesch W, Schnakers C, Perrin F, Freunberger R, Gruber W, Laureys S, Schabus M.
Clin Neurophysiol. 2011 Apr 19.

Identifying the default-mode component in spatial IC analyses of patients with disorders of consciousness.
Soddu A, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Bahri MA, Bruno MA, Boly M, Demertzi A, Tshibanda JF, Phillips C, Stanziano M, Ovadia-Caro S, Nir Y, Maquet P, Papa M, Malach R, Laureys S, Noirhomme Q.
Hum Brain Mapp. 2011 Apr 11. doi: 10.1002/hbm.21249.

Propofol anesthesia and sleep: a high-density EEG study.
Murphy M, Bruno MA, Riedner BA, Boveroux P, Noirhomme Q, Landsness EC, Brichant JF, Phillips C, Massimini M, Laureys S, Tononi G, Boly M.
Sleep. 2011 Mar 1;34(3):283-91A.

A survey on self-assessed wellbeing in a cohort of chronic locked-in syndrome patients: happy majority, miserable minority
Bruno MA, Bernheim J, Ledoux D, Pellas F, Demertzi A, Laureys S
British Medical Journal - Open (2011)

Disorders of consciousness: What's in a name?
Olivia Gosseries, MarieAurelie Bruno, Camille Chatelle, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Caroline Schnakers, Andrea Soddu and Steven Laureys
NeuroRehabilitation, 28 (2011) 3-14.

Neural plasticity lessons from disorders of consciousness
Athena Demertzi, Caroline Schnakers, Andrea Soddu, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Olivia Gosseries, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Steven Laureys
Frontiers in Consciousness Research, 2 (2011).

Assessment and detection of pain in noncommunicative severely brain-injured patients
Schnakers C, Chatelle C, Majerus S, Gosseries O, De Val M, Laureys S
Expert Rev Neurother 10 (2010) 1725-31

Assessment of consciousness with electrophysiological and neurological imaging techniques
Bruno MA, Gosseries O, Ledoux D, Hustinx R, Laureys S
Curr Opin Crit Care (2011) in press

Attitudes towards end-of-life issues in disorders of consciousness: a European survey
Demertzi A, Bruno MA, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Gosseries O, Soddu A, Schnakers C, Moonen G, Laureys S
Journal of Neurology (2011)258:1058-1065.

Visual fixation in the vegetative state: an observational case series PET study
Bruno MA, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Schnakers C, Boly M, Gosseries O, Demertzi A, Majerus S, Moonen G, Hustinx R, Laureys S
BMC Neurology (2010) 10:35

Disorders of consciousness: Moving from passive to resting state and active paradigms
Bruno MA, Soddu A, Demertzi A, Laureys S, Gosseries O, Schnakers C, Boly M, Noirhomme Q, Thonnard M, Chatelle C, Vanhaudenhuyse A
Cognitive Neuroscience 1 (2010) 3, 193-203.

Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma
Noirhomme Q, Soddu A, Lehembre R, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Boveroux P, Boly M and Laureys S
Frontiers in systems neuroscience, vol. 4, 2010, article 160

Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome: a new name for the vegetative state or apallic syndrome
Laureys S, Celesia G, Cohadon F, Lavrijsen J, Léon-Carrrion J, Sannita WG, Sazbon L, Schmutzhard E, von Wild KR, Zeman A, Dolce G and the European Task Force on Disorders of Consciousness
BMC Medicine (2010) 8: 68.

Uncovering awareness: medical and ethical challenges in diagnosing and treating the minimally conscious state
Bruno MA, Laureys S
Cerebrum, June 14 (2010)

Towards a neuro-scientific explanation of Near-Death Experiences?
Vanhaudenhuyse A, Thonnard M, Laureys
In: 2009 Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine
Edited by Vincent JL, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (2009) 961-968

Functional Neuroimaging Approaches to the Changing Borders of Consciousness
Noirhomme Q, Soddu A, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Lehembre R, Bruno, MA, Gosseries O, Demertzi A, Maudoux A, Schnakers C, Boveroux P, Boly M and Laureys S
Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 24(2) (2010), pp. 68-75

Diagnosing the Vegetative State - supplementary references - powerpoint of figures & tables
Monti M, Laureys S, Owen AM
British Medical Journal, 341 (2010) 292-296

Relevance Vector Machine" consciousness classifier applied to cerebral metabolism of vegetative and locked-in patients
Phillips C, Bruno MA, Maquet P, Boly M, Noirhomme Q, Schnakers C, Vanhaudenhusye A, Bonjean M, Hustinx R, Moonen G, Luxen A, Laureys S
Neuroimage, (2010) in press

Transcranial magnetic stimulation in disorders of consciousness
Lapitska N, Gosseries O, Delvaux V, Overgaard M, Nielsen F, Maertens de Noordhout A, Moonen G, Laureys S
Rev Neurosci, 20 (2009) 235-50

Anterior cingulate activity and the self in disorders of consciousness
Qin P and Di Hi, Liu Y, Yu S, Gong O, Duncan N, Weng X, Laureys S, Northoff G
Human Brain Mapping, (2010) in press

Willful modulation of brain activity in disorders of consciousness
Monti MM & Vanhaudenhuyse A, Coleman MR, Boly M, Pickard JD, Tshibanda JF, Owen AM, Laureys S
New England Journal of Medicine
(2010) 362(7):579-89 - complimentary online material --- editorial commentary

Default network connectivity reflects the level of consciousness in non-communicative brain damaged patients
Vanhaudenhuyse A, Noirhomme Q, Tshibanda L, Bruno MA, Boveroux P,Schnakers S, Soddu A, Perlbarg V, Ledoux D,  Brichant JF, Moonen G, Maquet P, Greicius M, Laureys S, Boly M
Brain (2010) 133(Pt 1):161-71

The Nociception Coma Scale: A new tool to assess nociception in disorders of consciousness - supplementary online material (doc file)
Schnakers C, Chatelle C, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Majerus S, Ledoux D, Boly M, Bruno MA, Boveroux P, Demertzi A, Moonen G, Laureys S
Pain (2010) 148(2):215-9.

Neuroimaging after coma
Tshibanda L and Vanhaudenhuyse A, Boly M, Soddu A, Bruno MA, Moonen G, Laureys S, Noirhomme Q
Neuroradiology (2010) 52(1):15-24

Detecting consciousness in a total locked-in syndrome: an active event related paradigm
Schnakers C, Perrin F, Schabus M, Hustinx R, Majerus S, Moonen G, Boly M, Laureys S
Neurocase, 25 (2009) 1-7

Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment
Schnakers C, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Giacino J, Ventura; Boly M, Majerus S, Moonen G, Laureys S
BMC Neurology, 9 (2009) 35

Predictors of short-term outcome in brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness.
Whyte J, Gosseries O, Chervoneva I, DiPasquale MC, Giacino J, Kalmar K, Katz DI, Novak P, Long D, Childs N, Mercer W, Maurer P, Eifert B.
Prog Brain Res. 2009;177:63-72.

Disorders of consciousness: further pathophysiological insights using motor cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Lapitskaya N, Coleman MR, Nielsen JF, Gosseries O, de Noordhout AM.
Prog Brain Res. 2009;177:191-200.

The problem of aphasia in the assessment of consciousness in brain-damaged patients
Majerus S, Bruno MA, Schnakers C, Giacino JT, Laureys S
Progress in Brain Research, 177 (2009) 49-61

Another kind of ?BOLD Response?: answering multiple-choice questions via online decoded single-trial brain signals
Sorger B, Dahmen B, Reithler J, Gosseries O, Maudoux A, Laureys S, Goebel R
Progress in Brain Research, 177 (2009) 275-292

Different beliefs about pain perception in the vegetative and minimally conscious states: a European survey of medical and paramedical professionals
Demertzi A, Schnakers C, Ledoux D, Chatelle C, Bruno MA, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Boly M, Moonen G, Laureys S
Progress in Brain Research, 177 (2009) 329-238

A new era of coma and consciousness science
Owen AM, Schiff ND, Laureys S
Progress in Brain Research, 177 (2009) 399-411

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging in coma survivors: promises and pitfalls
Tshibanda L, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Galanaud D, Boly M, Laureys S, Puybasset L
Progress in Brain Research, 177 (2009) 215-229

Reaching across the abyss: recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging and their potential relevance to disorders of consciousness
Soddu A, Boly M, Nir Y, Noirhomme Q,  Vanhaudenhuyse A, Demertzi A, Arzi A, Ovadia S, Stanziano M, Papa M, Laureys S, Malach R
Progress in Brain Research, 177 (2009) 261-274

Life can be worth living in locked-in syndrome
Lulé D, Zickler C, Häcker S, Bruno MA, Demertzi A, Pellas F, Laureys S, Kübler A
Progress in Brain Research 177 (2009) 339-351

Functional connectivity in the default network during resting state is preserved in a vegetative but not in a brain dead patient
Boly M, Tshibanda L, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Noirhomme Q, Schnakers C, Ledoux D, Boveroux P, Garweg C, Lambermont B, Phillips C, Luxen A, Moonen G, Bassetti C, Maquet P, Laureys S
Human Brain Mapping, 30 (2009) 2393-400

Theoretical approaches to the diagnosis of altered states of consciousness
Boly M, Massimini M, Tononi G
Progress in Brain Research 177 (2009) 383-398

A perturbational approach for evaluating the brain's capacity for consciousness
Massimini M, Boly M, Casali A, Rosanova M, Tononi G
Progress in Brain Research 177 (2009) 201-214

Coma, Persistent Vegetative States, and Diminished Consciousness
Demertzi A, Laureys S and Boly M
In Banks WP (Ed) Encyclopedia of Consciousness. Elsevier, Oxford (2009) 147-156

Ethical Implications: Pain, Coma, and Related Disorders
Schnakers C, Faymonville M -E and Laureys S
In Banks WP (Ed) Encyclopedia of Consciousness. Elsevier, Oxford (2009) 243-250

Coma
Laureys S, Boly M, Moonen G, Maquet P
In Squire L (Ed) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Academic Press, Oxford 2 (2009) 1133-1142

Voluntary brain processing in disorders of consciousness - complimentary online material
Schnakers C, Perrin F, Schabus M, Majerus S, Ledoux D, Damas P, Boly M, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Bruno MA, Moonen G, Laureys S
Neurology, 71 (2008) 1614-1620

Diagnostic and prognostic use of bispectral index in coma, vegetative state, and related disorders
Schnakers C, Ledoux D, Majerus S, Damas P, Damas F, Lambermont B, Lamy M, Boly M, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Moonen G, Laureys S
Brain Injury, 22 (2008) 926-931

Blink to visual threat does not herald consciousness in the vegetative state - complimentary online material
Vanhaudenhuyse A, Giacino J, Schnakers C, Kalmar K,  Smart C, Bruno M-A, Gosseries O, Moonen G, Laureys S
Neurology, 71 (2008) 1374-5

Perception of pain in the minimally conscious state with PET activation: an observational study
Boly M, Faymonville ME, Schnakers C, Peigneux P, Lambermont B, Phillips C, Lancellotti P, Luxen A, Lamy M, Moonen G, Maquet P, Laureys S
Lancet Neurology, 7 (2008) 1013-1020

Is there anybody in there? Detecting awareness in disorders of consciousness
Demertzi A, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Bruno MA, Schnakers C, Boly M, Boveroux P, Maquet P, Moonen G, Laureys S
Expert Reviews of Neurotherapeutics, 8 (2008) 1719-30

Mismatch negativity to the patient?s own name in chronic disorders of consciousness
Qin P, Di H, Yan X, Yu S, Yu D, Laureys S Weng X
Neuroscience Letters, 448 (2008) 24?28

Neuroimaging and Disorders of Consciousness: Envisioning an Ethical Research Agenda
Fins JJ, Illes J, Bernat JL, Hirsch J, Laureys S, Murphy E
American Journal of Bioethics, 8 (2008) 3-12

Neuroimaging activation studies in the vegetative state: predictors of recovery?
Di H,Boly M, Weng X, Ledoux D, Laureys S
Clinical Medicine, 8 (2008) 502-507

The changing spectrum of coma
Laureys S, Boly M
Nature Clinical Practice Neurology, 4 (2008) 544-546

A twitch of consciousness: defining the boundaries of vegetative and minimally conscious states
Noirhomme Q, Schnakers C, Laureys S
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79 (2008) 741-742

Assessment of visual pursuit in post-comatose states: use a mirror
Vanhaudenhuyse A, Schnakers C, Brédart S, Laureys S
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 79 (2008) 223

Measuring the effect of amantadine in chronic anoxic minimally conscious state
Schnakers C, Hustinx R, Vandewalle G, Majerus S, Moonen G, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Laureys S
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 79 (2008) 225-227

What is it like to be vegetative or minimally conscious?
Laureys S, Boly M
Curr Opin Neurol 20 (2007) 609-13

Pain assessment and management in disorders of consciousness
Schnakers C, Zasler ND
Curr Opin Neurol 20 (2007) 620-626

Cognitive event-related potentials in comatose and post-comatose states
Vanhaudenhuyse A, Laureys S, Perrin F
Neurocrit Care 8 (2008) 262-70

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect covert awareness in the vegetative state
Owen AM, Coleman MR, Boly M, Davis MH, Laureys S, Pickard J
Archives of Neurology 64 (2007) 1098-102

When thoughts become action: an fMRI paradigm to study volitional brain activity in non-communicative brain injured patients
Boly M, Coleman MR, Hampshire A, Bor D, Moonen G, Maquet P, Laureys S, Owen A
Neuroimage 36 (2007) 979-92

Self-consciousness in non-communicative patients - view PDF - Commentary by Cole
Laureys S, Perrin F, Brédart S
Consciousness & Cognition, 16 (2007) 722-41

Cerebral response to patients? own name in the vegetative and minimally conscious states
Di HB, Yu SM, Weng XC, Laureys S, Yu D, Li JQ, Qin PM, Zhu YH, Zhang SZ, Chen YZ
Neurology, 68 (2007) 895-899

Cerebral response to patient?s own name in PVS and MCS cases [reply on commentary]
Di HB, Weng XC, Laureys S, Chen YZ
Neurology, in press

Eyes open, brain shut: the vegetative state
Laureys S
Scientific American, 4 (2007) 32-37

Brain response to one?s own name in vegetative state, minimally conscious state and locked-in syndrome
Perrin F, Schnakers C, Schabus M, Degeuldre C, Goldman S, Brédart S, Faymonville ME, Lamy M, Moonen G, Luxen A, Maquet P, Laureys S
Archives of Neurology 63 (2006) 562-569

Detecting awareness in the vegetative state - (supplementary online material)
Owen AM, Coleman MR, Boly M, Davis MH, Laureys S, Pickard J
Science 313 (2006) 1402

Response to comments on ?Detecting awareness in the vegetative state? [technical comment]
Owen AM, Coleman MR, Boly M, Davis MH, Laureys S, Jolles D, Pickard J
Science 315 (2007) 1221

Tracking the recovery of consciousness from coma
Laureys S, Boly M, Maquet P
J Clin Invest, 116 (2006) 1823-1825

How should functional imaging of patients with disorders of consciousness contribute to their clinical rehabilitation needs?
Laureys S, Giacino JT, Schiff ND, Schabus M, Owen AM
Current Opinion in Neurology, 19 (2006) 520-527

The neural correlate of (un)awareness: lessons from the vegetative state
Laureys S
Trends Cogn Sci, 9 (2005) 556-559

Residual cognitive function in comatose, vegetative and minimally conscious states
Laureys S, Perrin F, Schnakers C, Boly C, Majerus S
Current Opinion in Neurology, 18 (2005) 726-733

Functional neuroimaging applications for assessment and rehabilitation planning in patients with disorders of consciousness
Giacino J, Hirsch J, Schiff N, Laureys S
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87 (2006) 67-76

To be or not to be ? vegetative
Boly M, Owen A, Laureys S
In: 2007 Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine
Edited by Vincent JL, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (2007) 918-925

Cerebral processing of auditory and noxious stimuli in severely brain injured patients: differences between VS and MCS
Boly M, Faymonville ME, Peigneux P, Lambermont B, Damas F, Luxen A, Lamy M, Moonen G, Maquet P, Laureys S
Neuropsychological Rehabilitation , 15 (2005) 283-289

Bispectral analysis of electroencephalogram signals during recovery from coma: preliminary findings
Schnakers C, Majerus S, Laureys S
Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15 (2005) 381-388

Cerebral processing in the minimally conscious state [letter]
Schnakers C, Boly M, Majerus S, Laureys S
Neurology, 65 (2005) 973-974

Auditory processing in severely brain injured patients: differences between the minimally conscious state and the persistent vegetative state
Boly M, Faymonville ME, Peigneux P, Lambermont B, Damas P, Del Fiore G, Degueldre C, Franck G, Luxen A, Lamy M, Moonen G, Maquet P, Laureys S
Archives of Neurology 61 (2004) 233-238

Cerebral processing in the minimally conscious state
Laureys S, Perrin F, Faymonville ME, Schnakers C, Boly M, Bartsch V, Majerus S, Moonen G, Maquet P
Neurology 63 (2004) 916-918

Brain function in coma, vegetative state, and related disorders
Laureys S, Owen A, Schiff  N
Lancet Neurology 3 (2004) 537?46 

Functional neuroimaging in the vegetative state
Laureys S
NeuroRehabilitation 19 (2004) 335-341

Brain function in the vegetative state
Laureys S, Faymonville ME, De Tičge X, Peigneux P, Berré J, Moonen G, Goldman S, Maquet P
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 550 (2004) 229-38

Brain function in the vegetative state
Laureys S, Faymonville ME, De Tičge X, Peigneux P, Berré J, Moonen G, Goldman S, Maquet P
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 550 (2004) 229-38

Residual cerebral functioning in the vegetative state
Laureys S, Faymonville ME, De Tičge X, Berré J, Elincx S, Antoine S, Ligot N, Boly M, Schnakers C, Sadzot B, Hansen I, Damas P, Mavroudakis N, Vincent JL, Lamy M, Moonen G, Luxen A, Goldman S, Maquet P
L?Arco di Giano (2004) 74-80

Favorable outcome of a brain trauma patient despite bilateral loss of cortical somatosensory evoked potential during thiopental sedation
Robe PA, Dubuisson A, Bartsch S, Damas P, Laureys S
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 74 (2003) 1157-1158

Brain function during catatonic stupor and after clinical recovery
De Tičge X, Bier JC, Massat I, Laureys S, Lotstra F, Berré J, Mendlewicz J, Goldman S
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 74 (2003) 1003-1004

Cortical processing of noxious somatosensory stimuli in the persistent vegetative state
Laureys S, Faymonville ME, Peigneux P, Damas P, Lambermont B, Del Fiore G, Degueldre C, Aerts J, Luxen A, Franck G, Lamy M, Moonen G, Maquet P
Neuroimage, 17 (2002) 732-741

Brain function in the vegetative state
Laureys S, Antoine S, Boly M, Elincx S, Faymonville ME, Berré J, Sadzot B, Ferring M, De Tičge X, Lambermont B, Damas P, Van Bogaert P, Del Fiore G, Aerts J, Degueldre C, Phillips C, Franck G, Vincent JL, Lamy M, Luxen A, Moonen G, Goldman S, Maquet P
Acta Neurologica Belgica 102 (2002) 177-185

Cerebral function in coma, vegetative state, minimally conscious state, locked-in syndrome and brain death
Laureys S, Berré J, Goldman S
In: 2001 Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine
Edited by Vincent JL (Ed) Springer-Verlag, Berlin (2001) 386-396

Restoration of thalamocortical connectivity after recovery from persistent vegetative state
Laureys S, Faymonville ME, Luxen A, Lamy M, Franck G, Maquet P
Lancet 355 (2000) 1790-1791

PET scanning and neuronal loss in acute vegetative state
Laureys S, Faymonville ME, Moonen G, Luxen A, Maquet P
Lancet 355 (2000) 1825-1826

Auditory processing in the vegetative state
Laureys S, Faymonville ME, Degueldre C, Del Fiore G, Damas P, Lambermont B, Janssens N, Aerts J, Franck G, Luxen A, Moonen G, Lamy M, Maquet P
Brain 123 (2000) 1589-1601

Cerebral function in vegetative state studied by positron emission tomography
Laureys S, Faymonville ME, Lamy M
In: 2000 Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine
Edited by Vincent JL, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (2000) 587-597

Brain activation during somatosensory and auditory stimulation in acute vegetative state of anoxic origin
Laureys S, Faymonville ME, Del Fiore G, Janssens N, Degueldre C, Aerts J, Lamy M, Luxen A, Moonen G, Maquet P
In: Physiological Imaging of the Brain with PET
Edited by Gjedde A, Hansen SB, Knudsen GM, Paulson OB, Academic Press, San Diego (2000) 319-327

Impaired cerebral connectivity in vegetative state
Laureys S, Faymonville ME, Goldman S, Degueldre C, Phillips C, Lambermont B, Aerts J, Lamy M, Luxen A, Franck G, Maquet P
In: Physiological Imaging of the Brain with PET
Edited by Gjedde A, Hansen SB, Knudsen GM, Paulson OB, Academic Press, San Diego (2000) 329-334

Cerebral metabolism during vegetative state and after recovery to consciousness
Laureys S, Lemaire C, Maquet P, Phillips C, Franck G
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 67 (1999) 121

Impaired effective cortical connectivity in vegetative state: Preliminary investigation using PET
Laureys S, Goldman S, Phillips C, Van Bogaert P, Aerts J, Luxen A, Franck G, Maquet P
Neuroimage 9 (1999) 377-382

 

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