MEDICAL >> Outcome

Outcome Scales


Glasgow Outcome Scale



Disability rating scale (DRS)


Rappaport, M., K. M. Hall, K. Hopkins, T. Belleza and D. N. Cope (1982). "Disability rating scale for severe head trauma: coma to community." Arch Phys Med Rehabil 63(3): 118-23.

Barthel Index


  1. The index should be used as a record of what a patient does, not as a record of what a patient could do.
  2. The main aim is to establish degree of independence from any help, physical or verbal, however minor and for whatever reason.
  3. The need for supervision renders the patient not independent.
  4. A patient's performance should be established using the best available evidence. Asking the patient, friends/relatives and nurses are the usual sources, but direct observation and common sense are also important. However direct testing is not needed.
  5. Usually the patient's performance over the preceding 24-48 hours is important, but occasionally longer periods will be relevant.
  6. Middle categories imply that the patient supplies over 50 per cent of the effort.
  7. Use of aids to be independent is allowed.